Kevin Thom's research discussed in The Washington Poshere


  1. Bierut, L., Biroli, P., Galama, T.J., and Thom, K. (2023). Challenges in studying the interplay of genes and environment.  A study of childhood financial distress moderating genetic predisposition for peak smoking. Journal of Economic Psychology. Link to working paper.
  2. Faul JD, Kho M, Zhao W, Rumfelt KE, Yu M, Mitchell C, Smith JA. (2021) Trans-ethnic Meta-analysis of Interactions between Genetics and Early Life Socioeconomic Context on Memory Performance and Decline in Older Americans. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2021 Aug 27:glab255. doi:10.1093/gerona/glab255. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34448475.
  3. Ward, David D; Ranson, Janice M; Wallace, Lindsay M K; Llewellyn, David J; Rockwood, Kenneth (2022), Frailty, lifestyle, genetics and dementia risk, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 93, 343-350
  4. Nihat, A., Ranson, J., Dominque, H., McNiven, K., Mok, T, Rudge, P., Collinge, J, Llewelyn, D., Mead, S. (2022), Development of prognostic models for survival and care status in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Brain Communications, 4(4) fcac201
  5. Tai, Xin You; Veldsman, Michele; Lyall, Donald M; Littlejohns, Thomas J; Langa, Kenneth M; Husain, Masud; Ranson, Janice; Llewellyn, David J (2022), Cardiometabolic multimorbidity, genetic risk, and dementia: a prospective cohort study. Healthy longevity (2022), 3, e428-e436
  6. Galama, T.J. and van Kippersluis, H. (2022), Economic theories of health across the life course, Elgar Handbook on Health Inequalities Across The Life Course (Forthcoming)
  7. Dias-Pereira, R., Biroli, P., Galama, T.J., von Hinke, S., van Kippersluis, H., Rietveld, C.A., and Thom, K. (2022), Gene-by-Environment Interplay in the Social SciencesOxford Research Encyclopedia of Economics and FinanceWorking Paper.
  8. Smith, J.A., Kho, M., Zhao, W., Yu, M., Mitchell, C., Faul, J.D. (2021), Genetic effects and gene-by-education interactions on episodic memory performance and decline in an aging population. Social science & medicine, 271, 112039. PubMed PMID: 30449520; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6510651; DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.11.019.​
  9. Siervo, Mario; Shannon, Oliver M; Llewellyn, David J; Stephan, Blossom Cm; Fontana, Luigi (2021), Mediterranean diet and cognitive function: From methodology to mechanisms of action. Free radical biology & medicine, 176 105-117
  10. Barcellos, S., Carvalho, L. and Turley, P. (2021). Distributional Effects of Education on Health (2021), Forthcoming at the Journal of Human ResourcesNBER Working Paper No. w25898.
  11. Kuźma, Elżbieta; Littlejohns, Thomas J; Khawaja, Anthony P; Llewellyn, David J; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Thiem, Ulrich (2021), Visual Impairment, Eye Diseases, and Dementia Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, Journal of Alzheimer's disease  (JAD), 83, 1073-1087, 
  12. Fonseca, R., Michaud, P., Galama, T.J. and Kapteyn, A. (2021). Accounting for the Rise of Health Spending and Longevity. Journal of the European Economic Association,19(1), pp.536-579.
  13. Ranson, Janice M; Rittman, Timothy; Hayat, Shabina; Brayne, Carol; Jessen, Frank; Blennow, Kaj; van Duijn, Cornelia; Barkhof, Frederik; Tang, Eugene; Mummery, Catherine J; Stephan, Blossom C M; Altomare, Daniele; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Ribaldi, Federica; Molinuevo, José Luis; Scheltens, Philip; Llewellyn, David J; European Task Force for Brain Health Services (2021), Modifiable risk factors for dementia and dementia risk profiling. A user manual for Brain Health Services-part 2 of 6Alzheimer's research & therapy, 13, 169
  14. Marees, A.T., Smit, D.J.A., Abdellaoui, A., Nivard, M.G., van den Brink, W., Denys, D., Galama, T.J., Verweij, K.J.H., Derks, E.M. (2021), Genetic correlates of socio-economic status influence the pattern of shared heritability across mental health traitsNature Human Behaviorpp.1-9.
  15. Faul, J.D., Ware, E.B., Kabeto, M.U., Fisher, J., Langa, K.M. (2021), The effect of childhood socioeconomic position and social mobility on cognitive function and change among older adults: A comparison between the United States and EnglandJournal of Gerontology, Series B, 76, pS51-S63.
  16. Fu, M., Bakulski, K.M., Higgins, C. and Ware, E.B. (2021). Mendelian Randomization of Dyslipidemia on Cognitive Impairment Among Older AmericansFrontiers in neurology12, p.1002.
  17. Ware, E.B., Morataya, C., Fu, M. and Bakulski, K.M. (2021). Type 2 Diabetes and Cognitive Status in the Health and Retirement Study: a Mendelian Randomization ApproachFrontiers in genetics12, p.634767.
  18. Bakulski, K.M., Vadari, H.S., Faul, J.D., Heeringa, S.G., Kardia, S.L., Langa, K.M., Smith, J.A., Manly, J.J., Mitchell, C.M., Benke, K.S. and Ware, E.B. (2021). Cumulative Genetic Risk and APOE ε4 Are Independently Associated With Dementia Status in a Multiethnic, Population-Based CohortNeurology Genetics7(2).
  19. Faul, J.D., Ware, E.B., Kabeto, M.U., Langa, K.M., Llewellyn, D.J., Galama, T. (2020), Lifestyle and Genetic Risk: Revisiting the Association with Incident DementiaAlzheimer's & Dementia, 2020 16:e044220
  20. Zhang, Na; Ranson, Janice M; Zheng, Zhi-Jie; Hannon, Eilis; Zhou, Zhenwei; Kong, Xuejun; Llewellyn, David J; King, Daniel A; Huang, Jie (2021), Interaction between genetic predisposition, smoking, and dementia risk: a population-based cohort study, Scientific reports, 11, 1295
  21. Barth, D., Papageorge, N. and Thom, K. (2020), Genetic Endowments and Wealth Inequality, Journal of Political Economy. doi: 10.1086/70541
  22. Papageorge, N. and Thom, K. (2019), Genes, Education, and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from the Health and Retirement StudyJournal of the European Economic Association.
  23. Clark, Christopher E; Thomas, Daniel; Llewellyn, David J; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bandinelli, Stefania; Campbell, John L (2019), Systolic inter-arm blood pressure difference and risk of cognitive decline in older people: a cohort studyThe British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners, 70, e472-e48
  24. Ware, Erin B; Faul, Jessica D; Mitchell, Colter M; Bakulski, Kelly M (2019), Considering the APOE locus in Alzheimer's disease polygenic scores in the Health and Retirement Study: a longitudinal panel studyBMC Medical Genomics, 13, 16
  25. Elliott, Emma; Green, Claire; Llewellyn, David J; Quinn, Terence J (2019), Accuracy of Telephone-Based Cognitive Screening Tests: Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisCurrent Alzheimer Research, 17, 460-47
  26. Taylor, J.Y., Ware, E.B., Wright, M.L., Smith, J.A., Kardia, S.L.R. (2019), Using Genetic Burden Scores for Gene-by-Methylation Interaction Analysis on Metabolic Syndrome in African Americans. Biological Research for Nursing, 21(3): 279-285. doi: 10.1177/1099800419828486. Epub 2019 Feb 19. PubMed PMID: 30781968. 
  27. Galama, T.J. and van Kippersluis H.  (2018). A Theory of Socioeconomic Disparities in Health Over the Life CycleEconomic Journal; Link to working paper
  28. Schmitz, L.L., Gard, A.M., Ware, E.B. (2019), Examining sex differences in pleiotropic effects for depression and smoking using polygenic and gene-region aggregation techniques. American Journal of Medical Genetics, part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.b.32748. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31219244; NIHMSID:NIHMS1042483. 
  29. Lourida, Ilianna; Hannon, Eilis; Littlejohns, Thomas J; Langa, Kenneth M; Hyppönen, Elina; Kuzma, Elzbieta; Llewellyn, David J (2019),  Association of Lifestyle and Genetic Risk With Incidence of DementiaJAMA, 322. 430-437, PMC ID 6231970
  30. Galama, T.J., Lleras-Muney, A. and Van Kippersluis, H. (2018), The Effect of Education on Health and Mortality: A Review of Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evidence. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Economics and Finance. Link to working paper. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190625979.013.7
  31. Kuźma, E., Lourida, A., Moore, S.F., Levine, D.A., Obioha C. Ukoumunne, O.C., Llewellyn, D.J. (2018). Stroke and dementia risk: A systematic review and meta-analysisAlzheimers & Dementia, 1-11
  32. Kuźma, E., Hannon, E., Zhou, A., Lourida, I., Bethel, A., Levine, D.A., Lunnon, K., Thompson-Coon, J., Hyppönen, E., and Llewellyn, D.(2018), Which risk factors causally influence dementia? A systematic review of Mendelian randomization studiesJournal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 64, pp. 181–193
  33. Barcellos, S.H., Carvalho, S., Turley, P. (2018), Education can Reduce Health Differences Related to Genetic Risk of ObesityProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) of the United States 




  1. Van Alten, S., Domingue, B.W., Faul J., Galama, T.J., and Marees, A.T.  (2022b), Correcting for volunteer bias in GWAS uncovers novel genetic variants and increases heritability estimates. Working Paper.
  2. Van de Kraats, C., Galama, T.J. and Lindeboom, M. (2022), Why Life Gets Better after Age 50 For Some: Mental Well-Being and the Social Norm of WorkHuman Capital and Economic Opportunity Global Working Group, Working Paper 2022-040
  3. Galama, T.J. and van Kippersluis, H. (2022), Human-Capital Formation: The Importance of Endogenous Longevity. Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Global Working Group, Working Paper 2022-009 
  4. Van Alten, S., Domingue, B.W., Galama, T.J. and Marees, A.T. (2022a), Reweighting the UK Biobank to reflect its underlying sampling population substantially reduces pervasive selection bias due to volunteering. Working Paper.
  5. Carvalho, L. (2022), Genetics, Economic Choices, and Income. In preparation.
  6. Van Alten, S. and Galama, T. (2021), Genetic and environmental determinants of socioeconomic status: evidence from within-family models in the Dutch Lifelines cohort. In preparation.
  7. Aranda, R., Galama, T., and Thom, K. (2022), The Long-Run Health Consequences of Title IX. In preparation
  8. Galama, T., Munteanu, A and Thom, K. (2022), Intergenerational Consequences of Compulsory Schooling. In preparation.
  9. Van Kippersluis, H., Biroli, P.. Galama, T.J., Muslimova, D., Meddens, F., von Hinke, S., Pereira, R., Rietveld, N., Using Obviously-Related Instrumental Variables to Increase the Predictive Power of Polygenic Scores, R&R at Nature Communications. Link to working paper
  10. Bakulski, K.M., Vadari, H.S., Faul, J.D., Heeringa, S.G., Kardia, S.L.R., Langa, K.M., Smith, J.A., Manly, J.J., Mitchell, C.M., Benke, K.S., Ware, E.B. (2020). A non-APOE polygenic score for Alzheimer's disease and APOE-ε4 have independent associations with dementia in the Health and Retirement Study (medRxiv). 2020.02.10.20021667; doi: (R&R Neurology). Link to working paper
  11. Barcellos, S., Carvalho, L. and Turley, P. (2021). The Effect of Education on the Relationship between Genetics, Early-Life Disadvantages, and Later-Life SES (under revision at the Journal of Political Economy). NBER Working Paper No. w28750
  12. Fu, M., Faul, J.D., Jin, Y., Ware, E.B. and Bakulski, K.M., 2021. Smoking and Dementia Status Among Older Americans: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis. Link to working paper.
  13. Fu, M., Ware, E.B., Faul, J.D., Bakulski, K.M. (2020), Mendelian randomization of smoking behavior on cognitive status among older Americans. (medRxiv) 2019.12.11.19014522; doi: Link to working paper.
  14. Ware, E.B., Faul, J.D., Mitchell, C.M., and Bakulski, K.M. (2019), Considering the APOE locus in polygenic scores for Alzheimer's disease, MedRXiv. Link to working paper. (R&R BMC Genomic Medicine)
  15. Ware, E.B., Schmitz, L.L., Faul, J.D., Gard, A., Mitchell, C., Smith, J.A., Zhao, W., Weir, D., Kardia, S.L.R. (2019), Heterogeneity in polygenic scores for common human traits. In review.
  16. Barth, D., Papageorge, N.W., and Thom, K. (2021), Genetic endowments, income dynamics, and wealth accumulation over the lifecycle. In preparation. 
  17. Jeong, Y., Papageorge, N.W., Skira, M.M. and Thom, K. (2021), Genetic endowments, Alzheimer's disease, and economic outcomes. In preparation.
  18. Van Alten, S., Galama, T.J. and Thom, K. (2021), The distributional consequences of region-specific exposure to Chinese import competition: evidence from a shift-share analysis (1990-2010). In preparation.
  19. Warly Solsberg, C., van Alten, S., Geier, E.G., Bonham, L., Derks, E.M., Sirota, M., Galama, T.J., Yokoyama, J.S., Marees, A.T. (2021), Conducting a genome wide association study: a roadmap and tutorial. In preparation.
  20. Angrisani, Faul, J., Galama, T. and Kabeto, M. (2021), Money Management Problems as a Precursor of Cognitive Impairment and Dementia. In preparation
  21. Biroli, P., Galama, T.J., Marees, A., et al. (2021), Sources of Inequality at Birth:  the Interplay Between Genes and Parental Socioeconomic Status. In preparation
  22. Biroli, P., Galama, T.J., von Hinke, S., van Kippersluis, H., Rietveld, C.A., and Thom, K. (2021), The Economics and Econometrics of Gene-Environment Interplay (under revision at the Review of Economic Studies). Working Paper.
  23. Bakulski, K.M., Petrowicz, B., Vadari, H., Faul, J.D., Manly, J., Kardia, S.K., Heeringa, S., Ware, E.B. (2019), Early life exposures and risk for dementia in the Health and Retirement Study. In preparation​
  24. Faul, J.D., Benke, K., Bakulski, K.M., Ware, E.B. (2019), Within and Trans-Racial PGS and Gene-Region Associations. In preparation.
  25. Brandt, D., Bakulski, K.M., Faul, J.D., Vadari, H.S., Ware, E.B. (2019) Occupational mental and physical work demands associated with cognitive status in older Americans. In preparation.
  26. Marshall III, W., Ware, E.B., Faul, J.D., Vadari, H.S., Bakulski, K.M. (2019), Family history of Alzheimer’s Disease and cumulative genetic risk in older Americans. In preparation.
  27. Mitchell CM, Faul JD, Kho M, Zhao W, Ware EB, Hillman TJ, Smith JA (2022). Genetic burden and early life socioeconomic status jointly influence memory performance and decline in older adults. Revise and Resubmit at Biodemography Soc Biol. In preparation.